Vascular Disease in Women

2/15/2016 news

Vascular Disease in Women

Vascular disease in women falls into several major categories:

Atherosclerosis: Currently one-half of all infrainguinal and aortic procedures occur in women. Outcomes for endovascular intervention and open surgery can be negatively affected secondary to small target vessels or smaller conduits. There is also a higher incidence of mesenteric occlusive disease in women, the etiology of which is unknown. Carotid artery disease in women is also associated with different outcomes than in men, particularly as related to restenosis and benefit in preventing strokes.

Aneurysms: Aortic size in women is smaller than in men. A 5 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm in a female is much more likely to rupture than in a male. Therefore, surveillance of abdominal aortic aneurysm disease in women requires a different set of criteria than in men. There also is an increased incidence of visceral aneurysms in women especially the splenic artery.

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD): This disorder has a much higher incidence in women than men, and the distribution in the carotid and renal arteries is most common. Fifty percent of patients with carotid FMD will have renal disease. The treatment of choice is balloon dilatation.

Vasculitis: Inflammatory vascular disorders (arteritis): Arteritis is thought to be an immunologic disorder and affects women disproportionately as seen in the incidents of temporal arteritis and Takayasu's disease. Takayasu's disease can affect the entire aorta and all major branches giving rise to stroke, claudication, aneurysms, and many other Vascular Disease in Women clinical abnormalities. Various anatomical defects can be addressed with endovascular solutions.

Raynaud's syndrome: Seventy to 90 percent of patients with Reynaud's syndrome are women and 60 percent of these patients develop symptoms before age 30. The associated symptoms include angina, migraine headaches, cold induced vasospasm, and other connective tissue disorders such as scleroderma, lupus erythematosis, Sjogren's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Miscellaneous disorders: A variety of other diseases affect the female gender greater than male such a Behcet's disease, Kawasaki's disease, congenital vascular malformations, and Kippel-Trenaury syndrome. Awareness of such entities can lead to the correct diagnostic studies and treatment pathway.